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Turkey has several ports and berthing facilities; The ports are classified into three groups: governmental, municipal and private ports.

The first group, general-purpose governmental ports, are operated by State Economic Enterprises. The Turkish State Railways (TCDD) ports, all of which are connected with the railway network. The Turkish Maritime Organization (TDI) ports. These two State Economic Enterprises are under the control of the Ministry of Transport, but they are activating as independent enterprises. In the headquarters of both organizations, there is a separate Department of Ports, which is responsible for planning and their coordination. Each individual port is managed by a Port Manager appointed by the related State Enterprise. These ports are "full-service" ports. All the services to ship and cargo are given by the port own labor and equipment. Main services given by the ports.

The second group are municipal ports which are managed by the Municipalities. These ports are comparatively small and are general limited to a small volume of coastal traffic serving the local needs of provincial towns.

The third group is made up of special private ports. These ports are mostly confined in purpose to the particular needs of industrial plant but allowed to use by third parties too.

Heath and medical: If urgent medical assistance required, Master must contact Agent as soon as possible. . (Doctors, pharmacies and hospitals available each port)

Sanitary and Port inspections: Vessels calling Turkish ports have to obtain free pratique than custom clearance to commence any operation. Nobody may join to leave the ship before this inspection is completed. Vessels may be cleared at anchorage or alongside, and sometimes at the straits of Dardanells and Bosphours. Upon arrival of the vessel, the organizes the clearance party which consist of:
1 sanitary officer
1 or more immigration police
1 or more custom officer

Master has to submit the following documents to the clearance party:

- 8 Copies of crew list (and passenger list) With seaman books (passports) (1 copy for sanitary, 2 copies for police, 2 copies for customs also required on departure)
- 2 copies of provisions, stores and bunkers list (for custom) also required on departure (Excepting the case of tourist vessels, the custom officers will seal store of tobacco, spirits as well as any other itemsin bond. Sufficient quantities of the foregoing will be left unsealed for the needs of the ship during the stay in port.The seals must not be broken before ship's exit from territorial waters or if sailing from one Turkish port to another Turkish port. Custom allowances ten packets of cigarettes and one bottle spirit per crew member per week.)
- In addition to fill above, manifest covering all cargoes (also transit cargo) onboard are declared to the custom.
- Master has to fill in and sign a declaration form for the sanitary officer. In this declaration, the master is asked to provide information on sanitary/health matters on board the vessel

Lastly, the following ship-certificates to be present to the harbor Master for inspection, to obtain outward clearance:
- Tonnage Certificate
- Safety Equipment Certificate
- Safety Construction Certificate
- Safety Radio Certificate
- International Load Line
- International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
- Class Certificate
- Minimum Safe Manning Certificate
- Deratting Exemption Document
- International Medical Certificate
- Ship's registry Certificate
- Chemical Fitness Certificate (only tanker)
- International Safety Management Certificate

Departure: Vessels are allowed 3 hours alongside after completion of cargo before penalty charges are imposed (only TCDD & TDI ports). (This will be extended if the pilots will not take the vessel out in darkness.)
Master have to obtain the following documents through the agent before departure;
- Harbor master clearance (all ships certificates)
- Sanitary clearance (free pratique card)
- Custom clearances (Custom & Custom enforcement)
- Immigration clearance (all seaman book or passports and shore pass)

ETA: Vessels must cable their ETA's at least 96 and 48 hours in advance 24 hours before arrival, stating vessel's name, GRT/NRT, port of register, kind and quantity of cargo, drafts and last port of call.

Turkish Flag: All foreign ships are required to fly Turkish flag during their stay in Turkish ports or anchorages and also when passing through the Turkish straits (Dardanelles and Bosphours)

Time: GMT plus 2 hours. GMT 3 hours in Summer Time

Pilotage & Towage: Compulsory for berthing and unberthing a Turkish port or anchorage. When within 10- 15 miles, Approximately 3 hours prior to arrival, vessels can communicate with "Pilot Station" on VHF channels 16 or their self channels, manned 24 hours.

Pilot Ladder: will be prepared on vessel's starboard side. If your vessel's freeboard exceeds more than 5 meters, please prepare a combination ladder.

Readiness: Notice of Readiness will be received by loading master or receivers of cargoes. It should be tendered at the time of pilot boarding, anchoring or arrival points.

Port State Control: The under secretariat of maritime affairs port State Control officers are entitled to effect sudden unusual inspections on vessels in Turkish ports, in accordance with the "Mediterranean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State control".

Fire precautions: Ship's watchmen to be on duty. All operations involving open fires and sparks are prohibited. Fire on board the ship has to stop loading or discharging and contact the nearest fire station and harbor master on VHF channel 16 and dial number 110 in every region in Turkey.

Marine Pollution Prevention Regulations: inform the following rules and prohibited actions taken by the Turkish Ministry of Environment (rules numbered 2872), which vessels have to keep the rules while calling the all Turkish ports. Turkish Port and Environment Authorities have begun to take stricter measures against occurrences of pollution caused by vessels passing Turkish straits or calling any ports of Turkey. Regardless of whether pollution is actually caused by any particular vessel, the slightest indication of pollution witnessed by other vessels is immediately reported to the these authorities at twenty-four hours;(MARPOL 73/78, Annex-I)
1-Traffic control center or Pilot stations on VHF channels 16 , 11, 12 , 13 in every region in Turkey
2- Harbor master on VHF channels 16 in every region in Turkey
3-Coast Guard Command on VHF channels 16, 08 and dial number 158 in every region in Turkey,
4-Your local agency on VHF channel 16 and emergency phones.
If pollution is found to have been caused due to technical problems of the vessel, a fine of USD 35,000 (minimum) is charged. If pollution is found to have been caused by reason of negligence on the part of the vessel, or if ballast/dirty water/slops/garbage/etc are discharged, this violation is charged from USD 40,000 to USD 160,000.
Master has the responsibility to give all the necessary information, knowledge and instruction to Crew Members and monitoring the accomplish.

Garbage and Oil Record Book: must keep a regular and obtain the signature and seal of the receiving contractor each time of disposal, painting, chipping and washing the storage tanks and holds of vessel are under the responsibility of ship owner,

Garbage Removal: Garbage expenses are charged all vessels calling at Turkish ports under the management of the Turkish port authorities.

Ballast Water: There are no regulation concerning Ballast water Management, however, some of the terminals are equipped to accept ballast water. All vessels must not discharge ballast water within port limits or territorial waters.

Waste oil Disposal: Available from terminals are equipped. (Pollution of sea water is very severely fined)

Fumigation: Fumigation activities on board vessels are prohibited unless a permit has been issued by the Harbour Master.

Repairs: Ship's repair shops available at major ports. Minor repair possible under the port authorities' control.

Supplies: Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil, Gas Oil, Fresh Water and Provision are available either ex. Truck or barge

Watchman: Employment of watchman from shore is not compulsory.

Tally Clerk: The employment of tally clerks is not compulsory but recommended

Opening/Closing Hatches: This work can be carried out by crew. If carried out by stevedores the cost is charged to vessel.

Shore Leave: Possible after completing custom & immigration formalities, Crew permitted ashore with shore passes and Seaman's book and all shore passes have to return to Immigration before departure. Please kept the ports master information. (Some terminals is forbidden to walk on jetty and in terminals area. A vehicle is obtained by Terminal for the needs of the crew and vehicle goes only to gates.)

Repatriation: All facilities available for crew changes and arranging necessary repatriation.

Police/Ambulance/Fire: Emergency telephone numbers are Police 155 , Ambulance 112, Fire 110 in every region in Turkey.

Radio: Call Turk Radio,(ship-to-shore communication is by VHF-DSC channels 16, 70 near of Turkey) on MF & Hf band. Forecasts and other meteorological events are broadcast in Turkish on VHF channels 16 and 67 and updated every three hours. (You can receive the broadcast in English on VHF if you required)

Navtex stations and Broadcast frequency and time;
ISTANBUL (D) 518 kHz 0030 - 0430 - 0830 UTC
SAMSUN.. (E) 518 kHz 0040 - 0440 - 0840 UTC
ANTALYA. (F) 518 kHz 0050 - 0450 - 0850 UTC
IZMIR.... (I) 518 kHz 0120 - 0520 - 0920 UTC

Consuls: Majority of foreign countries have consuls.

General Holidays:
January 1 New year’s Day
April 23 Commemoration of Ataturk & Children’ Holiday
May 19 Youth and Sports Holiday
August 30 Victory Day
October 28 Eve of Republic Day
October 29 Republic Day
And Courban Bayram and Sheker Bayram (3,5-4 days movable)

Working hours 08. 00 - 12. 00 , 13.00 - 17.00 (Saturday and Sunday are holiday) official time in Turkey
For ports to be carried out during weekend and/or holidays, application to the authorities to be made latest
17. 00 proceeding working day (overtime possible except for banks).

Communication: The national Turkish railway lines have a total length of 8, 133 km. The road system includes
73,000 km of motorway and fairly good roads and is under modernization and development to meet the rapidly
increasing truck transit traffic between Europe an the Middle East. There are international airports.

Currency: The monetary unit is the Turkish Lira.

Climate: The country is so large that, one can not speak about a general overall climate. Therefore, Turkey's
climate varies dramaticall from region to region. Western and Black Sea Coastal areas enjoy generally mild
winters with little snow and warm summers. The Black Sea coast is rainy all through the year. The southern coast
is typically Mediterranean, hot and sometimes humid summers with mild winters. The climate in the Central
Anatolia and in the east is continental with low rainfall. Winters are harsh with heavy snowfall and the
temperatures falling to as low as minus 30 ° C in the east.

Language: Turkish is official language and is written in the Roman script. Many Turks engaged in business also
speak English, French and German.

Weight and Measures: The metric system is in use.

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